Официальный представитель польских туроператоров TUI и RAINBOW в Гродно/Беларусь
The route: Sightseeing tour of Grodno + agrotourist complex «Korobchitsy».
During the sightseeing tour across Grodno we’lll visit the main sights of the city. The route will begin with visit of the oldest temple of Belarus and a unique monument of Old Russian architecture – the Borisoglebsk (Kolozhskaya) church (the 12th century). Then we’ll go to Old and New castles which are considered as city symbols. We’ll admire a magnificent panorama of the city from a fortification. We will walk on beautiful Zamkovaya street. There are a lot of monuments of architecture such as the Fire tower, the Big choral synagogue, numerous palaces of magnates, and an arch. The arch served as the beginning of the Jewish ghetto during the Second World War. At Sovetskaya Square which is also the historic center of the city we will get acquainted with such outstanding monuments of architecture as cathedral (earlier: Farny) St Francis Xavier's church, Church of Finding St. cross and the monastery of bernardines, the First drugstore museum on lands of Eastern Europe. Also we’ll admire architectural complexes of Soviet, Ozheshko streets, Lenin and Tizengauz's squares, we’ll have a rest in the park of Zhiliber, we will go down to Lutheran Lutheran church, we will visit Sacred Pokrovsky Cathedral.
The second part of the program will pass in agrotourist complex «GARADZENSKI MAYONTAK of «Korobchitsy». It is difficult to find more convenient place for rest with a family or with a big company! And though similar type projects are created today on all territory of the country, but Korobchitsy are often call the most successfully realized project. So a lot of tourists from foreign countries and influential state persons can be often seen as vacationers.
The complex is stylized like pansky farm of the 19th century and includes rather extensive territory of lands. Also local restaurant of Belarusian cuisine «Zamak Zevany» deserves special attention. You can try there a number of dishes and drinks according to ancient recipes. Everyone will be able to try various kinds draniki, mochenik, pampushkas, game and meat dishes, drink a mug of a fragrant mead. The recipe local cooks always keep in secret.
There are a lot of objects of a complex , which are created especially for children. They will surely take time and will please the little guests, and allow some parents to have a rest. Some parents will be glad to spend time together with children, visiting «The square of smiles» or the Baba-yaga's izba, and even meet, walking somewhere on the forest road, a lame tilt cart with cheerful and noisy Roma. Having heard plenty of their songs and having solved all charades, it is possible to go to one more cafe located here and called Skarbets. Or parents can sit in silence on a bench of a river pier.
The complex occupies the territory in 54 hectares where constructions for various appointments are located, both economic, and specialized for rest. But all of them are organically entered the environment. 1/3 territories of the museum is the park in the form of untouched nature. Here is a virgin forest – the fallen and moss-grown trees, fontanels, streamlets and lakes. There are more than 2 thousand breeds of trees and bushes in a forest complex zone.
The zoo is located among cozy decorative plantings.
There are deer, marals, roes, elks, fallow deer, yaks, wild boars, over 250 bird species in it. It is possible to get acquainted with this kingdom of fauna and flora in the unusual way — to use a stagecoach with the real driver.
Walk on foot on well-planned paths of the park, will allow to meet the handsome of peacocks, colourful pheasants and big ostriches. Among domestic decorative birds and animals there are chickens, ducks, geese, rabbits, the Vietnamese pigs. There also lives the great number of poultry and animals who aren't afraid of a meeting with the person, don't hide and don't run away.
The interesting fact is horses, because earlier every shlyakhetskiy farm was with them. The stable contains only elite, and only a breeding livestock of various breeds of horses. You can watch a gripping show — horse-racing competitions which are held by local horse-racing club «Amadeus». Children and adults can ride by horse and a pony on an arena accompanied by the trainer.
Walking, you can unintentionally appear in a workshop of the woodcarver. All territory of the park is decorated by mythological beings and fantastic figures from a tree. More than 150 sculptures are also established in the territory of a complex. There is a museum of woodcarving, museum of local lore, a lodge of the fisherman and hunter, a smithy in their territory of the park. By the way, in the local museums it is possible to touch the majority of exhibits because there are no strict inspectors. And, being in a smithy or the museum of cutting on a tree, you will be able also to try the hand in these crafts (certainly by supervision of real masters).
Route: Sotsialisticheskaya St. – Vilenskaya St. – Naydus St. – the Big Choral synagogue-heder – Bolshaya Troitskaya St. – Zamkovaya st. – the Memorial sign to prisoners of the Grodno ghetto – Sovetskaya Square – Kirov st. (L. Zamengof's house) – Antonov St. – «Zanyomansky phorshtadt»
During the excursion we will learn about pioneer settlements of Jews in the territory of Grodno, we will get acquainted with a temple interior, and also with cultural and cult traditions of the nation, we will walk across the territory of the former ghetto and we will get acquainted with the former Yeshibahs and other educational institutions.
The history of the Grodno Jewry traces the roots back to an extreme antiquity. Scientists believe that Jews in Grodno appeared here at the end of the 12th century e. At the beginning of the 14th century there were a synagogue and several Jewish cemeteries in the city. «Prively» the prince Grodno and Troksky Vitovt of June 18, 1389 illustrates this fact. According to it "a bozhnitsa and cemeteries of Jews are free from taxes" The borders of the settlement of the Jewish community are defined in the document.
In 15th century the Jewish community of Grodno was insignificant. Jews lived on the special street and were engaged in trade. In 1495 they, as well as other Jews of the Lithuanian principality, were expelled from the country, their property was seized and distributed to citizens, and debts of Christians are recognized as invalid. In 1503 they were allowed to return and demand return of property. The situation exchanged to the middle of the 16th century. At that time 60 of 543 city sites of Grodno were built up with the Jewish houses. In the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Jews weren't exposed to such oppressions as in other countries of Europe, and they even had a number of privileges. At a turn of the 16th and 17th centuries influx of Jewish immigrants from the West rised, and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth became one of the countries of Europe which was most inhabited by Jews over time. At the end of the 16th century there were several battey-Midrash and Yeshibahs in Grodno.
At first half of the 17th century the community of Grodno was considered as one of three main Jewish communities of Lithuania (along with communities of Brest and Pinsk) and had the representatives in the Lithuanian va'ad. Wooden synagogue of Grodno (second half of 18 century; was destroyed by Nazis in 1941) was famous for the sizes and architectura. After the second and third partitions of Poland (in the 1793rd and 1795) Belarus with the 100-thousand Jewish population departed to the Russian Empire. Catherine II determined by the decree the board of settlement for Jews including 15 western provinces including Grodno.
Long time Grodno was considered as one of the centers of spiritual life of the Polish Jewry. Mordechai Jaffe (16 century) is especially known among the large talmudists holding a post of the rabbi in Grodno. In 18 century in Grodno there lived the famous rabbi and the kabbalist Ziskind (Alexander) of bin Moshe (died in 1794). The first book published in Hebrew in Lithuania was printed in Grodno in 1788. In 1920-1939 the outstanding talmudist, the rabbi Shim'on Yehuda Shkop headed a big Yeshibah Sha'arey ha-Tora. The editor of books in Hebrew and the translator Avrakham Shalom Fridberg (1838-1902) and the poet L. Naydus In Grodno lived long time. The court photographer and the author of poems in Hebrew Abba Asher (Konstantin Aleksandrovich) Shapiro (1839-1900), the artist L. Bakst and the sculptor I. Gintsburg were from Grodno. Grodno is also Meer Lansky's homeland, the famous mafioso and one of creators of Las Vegas. One of the Russia's first cooperative loan-and-savings cash desks was founded in Grodno in 1898. In 1906 in Grodno 100 heder (1200 pupils), seven elementary men's schools (566 pupils), five women's schools (527 pupils) functioned. In 1907 the Grodno pedagogical courses — the only in Russia educational institution was open for Jewish teachers training.
After World War I the Zionist movement in Grodno became more active. Tarbut knowledge of Hebrew extended through educational network, training of youth for resettlement in Erets-Israel was conducted. In Grodno there was the first in the Western Belarus cell He-Halutz. The Jewish labor movement in Grodno fought against national discrimination of the Jewish workers from the Polish government.
In September, 1939 the Soviet troops occupied Grodno, and the city was attached to the USSR. On September 18-20, 1939, after leaving of the Polish parts and before the introduction of the Soviet troops, large disorder broke out. In 1939-40 the secret Zionist center in Grodno transported to Vilnius the Jews, who intended to move to Palestine. Nazis occupied Grodno on June 23, 1941. Right after occupation it was offered to Jews to carry a distinctive sign — a blue six-pointed star. In November, 1941 Jews were imprisoned in two ghettoes. About twenty five thousand Jews were imprisoned in a ghetto. According to the order of the occupational authorities the Judenrat numbering 13 departments was created.
In November-December, 1942 the ghetto No. 2 was liquidated. A part of Jews was sent to the transit camp in the village of Kolbasino near the city. A lot of people were killed in this camp, and the others were sent to extermination camps in the territory of Poland and killed there. In February-March, 1943 the ghetto No. 1 was liquidated. The last chairman of Judenrat doctor Braver was killed. A part of the concluded ghettoes was shot, and the others are taken out to Treblinka.
The Jewish underground organization worked In a ghetto. At the end of 1942 it printed the leaflet with an appeal to armed resistance. In ghettoes masterful weapon was produced. A small amount of Jews managed to run in the woods and to join guerrilla groups. 20 thousand Grodno`s Jews died during Accident. About 180 Jews of the city and neighboring settlements managed to escape and disappeared from Germans until Grodno became free on July 16, 1944.
In the first years after release about two thousand Jews returned to Grodno, but communal life wasn't restored. By 1960th in Grodno there was no synagogue. The Jewish cemetery was opened in the mid-fifties, and gravestones were used at construction of a monument to Lenin.
In the late eighties – the beginning of the 2000th in Grodno there is a process of restoration of the Jewish communal and religious life. Since 1989 there is the Grodno regional combination of the Jewish culture in Grodno, since 1992 there is a club of the Jewish culture of Labe Naydus functions. In the early nineties the Jewish community of Grodno formed. The building of a synagogue built at the end of 16 century, used within several decades as art workshops was returned to a community.
Route: Sightseeing tour of Grodno + agrotourist complex of Korobchitsa
Grodno is considered as one of the most remained and beautiful cities of Belarus. The smell of the Grodno antique can't be confused with anything else. Sights of Grodno stood in a difficult fight with time, practically without sufferings. The excursion «The royal city of Grodno» will show you one of the most beautiful cities of Belarus, which is number one in the country on safety of the architecture and historical buildings.
Route: The Borisoglebsk church – Old and New castles – Fire Tower – Troitskaya Street – the Synagogue – historical buildings down the Castle street – the Memorial sign on the place of the Ghetto No. 1 – Sovetskaya Square – Elisa Ozheshko Street – a monument and Elisa Ozheshko's house – the city park of Zh.E.Zhiliber – A. Tyzengauz Square – Lutheran Lutheran church – Pokrovsky Cathedral.
Duration: from 2 – 3 o'clock.
The Borisoglebsk (Kolozhskaya) church is considered as a unique monument of architecture and the oldest temple of Belarus. This is the only construction of the Grodno architectural school which is left by nowadays. The church was constructed, in times or after Boris and Gleb Vsevolodkovichey's reigning (the first died before 1166, the second is in 1170). After the destructive fire of 1184 (the end of the 12th century) which destroyed cathedral church of ancient Goroden the Borisoglebsk church became the main city temple.
The ancient temple takes the significant place among world historical monuments and it`s one of applicants for inclusion in the List of the world cultural and natural heritage of UNESCO.
Nearby, on the high coast of Neman, there is an Old castle. It is one of the most ancient monuments of architecture in Belarus, the first fortification construction builded in the 11th century. The castle was in different roles: a defensive construction which reflected not numerous attacks of crusaders. There was a magnificent palace of Batoriya, a huge tower from a stone of the Grodno princes, two orthodox churches.
The new lock in Grodno continues a galaxy of architectural constructions. It was the residence of the Polish kings and the place of general diets. Right there the well-known "mute diet" took place following the results of which the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth finished her existance. In 1795 the Polish king and the grand duke Lithuanian Stanislav Augustus Ponyatovsky appended the signature under the act of renunciation, and after that he lived in the New castle till 1797.
The Fire Tower will be the next point of an excursion. This is a monument of architecture of the beginning of the 20th century, still operating fire brigade and the fire museum and rescue service. It`s outstanding structure is located on the Castle street of Grodno.
The big choral synagogue is an outstanding monument of architecture. The eclecticism and Mauritian style organically intertwined here. The history of a synagogue goes back to the 16th century. The first stone temple in Grodno was built in 1575 — 1580 by the project of the Italian architect Santi Gucci invited by the rabbi Mordechai Jaffe, the native of Prague, in 1572 arrived to Grodno. As a result of the fire in 1617 this synagogue was completely destroyed, but after the fire the Polish king Sigismund III allowed Jews to construct a new synagogue on the place of old one. The second synagogue existed longer, but repeated the predecessor's fate, having burned down in 1899. The present building of the Big choral synagogue was built by Ilyyoy Frunkin in 1902 — 1905.
Historical buildings on Zamkovaya street is also very interesting. This is one of the oldest city streets the length of it is only about 300 meters. It is one of symbols of Grodno. For the first time the street is mentioned in historical chronicles in the 16th century. It was called the street "Jewish from the Market to the Lock". Then it received the name "Castle" and since then it wasn't practically changed, for example, as well as Mostovaya St. (except for occupational years) which always has the same name. Zamkovaya street was the main path for grandees and senators to go to the castle. And it was considered it as honor to have the residence here. From residences of noble families of VKL a number of reconstruction by Masalsky' palace (Zamkovaya st., 5) is there, and also the Hreptovichey palace (Zamkovaya st., 16). During the Great Patriotic War the Jewish ghetto No. 1 settled down here.
Sovetskaya Square is considered the heart of historical Grodno. The main square of the city had several names earlier. It is Market (or the Market), during the Russian Empire it was the Front door, at the Second Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth it was Batoriya Square. Earlier it had a lot of buildings: palaces of magnates, mansions of merchants, little shops, Town hall and two high-rise dominants: church of Jesuits and Vitovt Farah. And today it keeps the magnificence. There is a historical place of the city.
One of the most majestic temples of the city is Cathedral (former Jesuit) Saint Francis Csaverija's cathedral is located in the downtown. It is the most outstanding monument of architecture and today is one of the most valuable monuments of Baroque style architecture. Construction of the temple began in 1585, and in December, 1705 consecration of the temple by the helminsky bishop Theodor Pototsky took place. the king Augustus ІІ and the tsar Pyotr І were at a celebration.
Near a church there is the drugstore museum which is the oldest drugstore of Belarus and the only museum of pharmaceutical matter in our country.
The building which is located on the right of a church (under a red roof) - so-called Batoriyevka. It is the former Sapeg palace which took this name because exactly here in 1586 anatomic postmortem examination of the body of Stefan Batory took place, the first operation of this type in Eastern Europe. Since 1718 and until construction of the New castle in this building diets (every third) RP took place. Thenthe building returned to mansion Sapegi. Now here is amedical university with the department of anatomy and the museum.
The ancient building of the former district court one facade faces the Soviet street, with another begins Ozheshko Street. Ozheshko Street is one of the central streets of Grodno which connects Privokzalnaya Square with the Lenin Square. In the Middle Ages the road from Grodno on Vertilishki - patrimonial possession of Davyd Gorodensky (from here and the name - Vertilishskaya Street). By the way, at the end of the street there was also a tavern «Poverty» («Need») that corresponded to moralising of the age of Enlightenment. The street begins to be formed in 1760 - 1780 as Gorodnitsa's part - the new district of the city where the manufactory, residential and city buildings were placed.
Life and activity of the talented Polish writer Elisa Ozheshko is connected with the city of Grodno. She was born in 1842 in the village of Milkovshchizne (near Grodno). After after a revolt of 1863 Ozheshko moved to Grodno and whole life lived in the city.
Modern Tizengauz Square appeared in the 1780th on the place of the suburban village of Gorodnitsa. It hasseveral names (Palace, Theatrical, Svoboda, Lenin). Till 1987 there was a monument to the leader of the world proletariat replaced then on more monumental, by the sculptor of Zaire Azgur. It was placed into new, present Lenin Square which is directly closed with Tizengauz Square. Tizengauz Square, thanks to the seclusion and harmony - one of the most attractive corners of Old Grodno. Today composition of the complex area consists of three buildings directly on the square, Tizengauz's theater, and the former hierarchal palace.
The old park of Zhiliber is located in the downtown, and occupies the space in 6,5 hectares. Though the former botanical garden at the Grodno medical school almost destroyed, today's park is rich and interesting. Oaks, chestnuts, blue spruces, a thuja, birches, larches are united in picturesque groups, forming shady avenues. At the beginning of the 20th century in the Old park, in the place where river Gorodnichanka proceeds there was amazingly picturesque place: the small river broke into two sleeves with bridges, along sleeves there were shady avenues with benches. And it all was called "The Swiss valley". Today it is only on cards of the beginning of the century.
The Lutheran church in pseudo-Gothic style is one of the main jewelry of the city. It was constructed from a brick in XIX – the beginning of 20th century. According to Gorodnitsa Zemler Markovic's plan, the state tavern was in the place of the German Lutheran church in 1780 - 1783. By the decree of the king, the building of a tavern was transferred to a Lutheran community. At that time (1795) the tavern - Lutheran church was described so: «There was a kamenitsa stone, a church of lyuterski now». Apparently, for adaptation of the building under the temple only the most necessary works were carried out. From 1793 to 1825 the Lutheran church represented the two-storeyed building.
The Grodno Sacred Pokrovsky Cathedral which was constructed in honor of soldiers of the Grodno garrison who died in the Russian-Japanese war of 1904-1905 will become the last point of an excursion. Both civil, and military experts built the memorial temple. Its project was developed in engineering management of the Vilensky military district. An architect M. Pozarov was the author of the project.
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